Scar care after cesarean section

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Tartru in children

Bacterial plaque is a nasty, yellow film of small food particles and bacteria, which tends to accumulate in crevices, but can develop anywhere, even on the front of the teeth.

If it is treated quickly, it can be easily removed, but as time passes, the plaque becomes tartar: a hard substance that, if not scratched by a dentist, can lead to cavities or even a gum disease known as gingivitis. Dr. Andra Custura, dentist Andra Smile It tells you everything you need to know about removing tartar in children.

The reason why the plate is particularly harmful to children is because of the way their teeth are built. Milk teeth have a thinner protective layer of enamel, so plaque can appear even faster than in adults.

Although it is true that milk teeth will eventually be replaced with permanent teeth, tartar-filled milk teeth can cause a lot of discomfort to little ones. Once the enamel is eroded, the nerve of the tooth is exposed and irritated.

The plate is unsightly, bad odor, unhealthy and a potential source of pain.

So what can you do? Pretty much, actually. With just a few parenting instructions and help, along with regular assistance from a friendly dentist, the board can be nothing more than an unwanted visitor.

It all starts, of course, with parents determined to make the removal of the plaque part of the daily routine of the little one. Part of it may seem obvious, while other approaches may seem too difficult, but it all works.

Tips for removing dental plaque in children

As with all things in your child's life, your degree of involvement will change with the age of the child. Did you know that cardiac removal techniques can start right before your baby has teeth? Some specialists recommend gentle rubbing of the baby's gums with a towel to eliminate microbes and get used to the routine of regular cleaning. And finally, when your teeth begin to appear, you can use a very soft brush to wipe out your small teeth at least twice a day.

Dental floss is used to remove the remaining food particles between the teeth. When the child has at least two teeth, dental floss should be introduced as part of the daily oral hygiene routine. Most children do not have the dexterity to effectively use dental floss until about 8 or 9 years old. Ignoring the plaque or just brushing your teeth for so long is not a good idea.

Instead, you can set a habit of placing the baby on his or her knees at the end of each day and using the dental floss for it. This may take some time and effort, but it will establish an important routine for the child.

Encourage the child to hum a song during brushing. Fredonate should last at least two minutes, the minimum amount of time for good oral hygiene. Children can also be encouraged to see the dental plaque in an exaggerated way. A little colored solution can highlight the areas where the plate has accumulated.

Periodically use dye solutions and turn dental floss into a challenge to see how few blue or red spots appear.

The advantages of having clean and healthy teeth, without tartar, are numerous: increasing self-confidence, financial savings from the rarer procedures, fresh breathing and no pain.

The key is to make the removal of the plaque a routine, which occurs at least twice a day. If this habit can be established sooner, your child will maintain a healthy smile for years to come.

We are waiting for you at Andra Smile's office for a complete descaling and more information.

The signs of labor

Experts do not know exactly when the work begins and there is no way you can predict its beginning. In fact, your body begins to prepare for exertion a month before birth. Some women have more and more symptoms as the term nears, while others have nothing until the last moment.

Lowering the fetus and feeling a weight in the pelvis

If you are pregnant for the first time, you may feel that the baby is down 2 to 4 weeks before birth. You will detect a weight in the pelvic area and less pressure in the chest. This will help you regain your breath faster.

Braxton Hicks contractions

Increasingly frequent and intense, Braxton Hicks contractions can signal pre-labor during which your cervix becomes thinner and ready for true labor.

These contractions are felt as a strong tightening of the uterus in its upper part and a gradual relaxation of the uterus. Some women may have menstrual cramps all the time.

As labor approaches these contractions can become relatively painful and may appear every 20 minutes, making you believe that you have entered labor. However, if they do not become stronger, more painful and longer and do not cause neck dilation, they form what is called false labor.

In the weeks before birth, Braxton Hicks contractions can open your cervix a bit (if you were born, your cervix may expand a centimeter or two before starting labor - but remember, though, you're 40 weeks pregnant and you have 1 centimeter dilation, this does not mean that labor is imminent). When you are near the deadline your doctor will perform a vaginal exam to see if your cervix has started to change.

Elimination of the cervical gelatin plug

As the cervix begins to thin and open, the "plug" of mucus that seals the uterus is removed.

You can remove it by the vagina a week or 2 before birth or even at the beginning of labor. The gelatinous plug can also be removed after sexual contact or vaginal examination, which will result in a leak that resembles menstruation. Call your doctor as soon as you notice this because it may signal a problem.

Blood stains

The secretions that have a slightly gelatinous texture, mucus and pink, brown or reddish hues on the panties are a sign of labor. You can sense this mucus when you go to the bathroom and wipe yourself or directly on the essentials. This is the sign that the cervix is ​​dilated, thinner and advancing to prepare for birth.

These secretions do not have a specific frequency. They may appear hours or weeks before, so it is good to go to the doctor to confirm whether or not you are at work.

Dilation (opening of cervix or cervix)

Another sign of labor is dilatation of the cervix. This means that the cervix begins to open. Dilation can occur days or even weeks before the birth, but if it occurs long before enlargement is not significant, but maximum 2-3 cm. As you progress to the time of birth, the opening is becoming faster.

Water breaking

When the bag filled with amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus breaks, the fluid is removed through the vagina. Call your doctor no matter how it leaks. Some women begin to have contractions before the water breaks, but there are cases when the contractions occur after it breaks. Such situations are closely followed by work. If you do not have contractions these will be provoked because there is a risk of the fetus becoming ill which is no longer protected by the amniotic fluid sac.

Natural instinct (an explosion of energy)

Labor can be announced in the case of some women through an energy explosion that I feel at one point towards the end of the third quarter. Normally, the physical changes that occur during pregnancy cause fatigue and lack of energy in the latter part. Therefore, it is considered that there is a primary instinct that reveals that labor is installed through this overflowing energy that the future mothers manifest.

The contractions from the beginning of labor

Most of the time it is not possible to figure out when the real labor started because the early stages of labor resemble the Braxton Hicks contractions that you have for several weeks.

When the contractions become more intense, more painful and longer than usual and occur every 10 minutes, you may think that you have gone into labor.

How do you find out if the contractions are false?

It is not easy to tell if the contractions are false or not. Many women come to the hospital with the thought that they will give birth and find that it was actually just a false alarm signal. Here are some signs of false contractions:

  • they are irregular;
  • they get scarce when you walk (you walk);
  • I decrease in intensity when you change your position;
  • do not increase in frequency and intensity;
  • discomfort located only in the abdomen.

When should you call the doctor?

By the end of your pregnancy, your doctor will inform you when you need to notify him that you have contractions or you must reach the hospital. When giving you this information you will take into account the specific aspects of your case (pregnancy or risky pregnancy, the distance between the hospital and your home, etc.).

If your pregnancy is uncomplicated, it will probably tell you to come to the hospital when you have long contractions of one minute to 5 minutes apart (you schedule a contraction from its beginning to the beginning of the next one).

Do not hesitate to call even if the signs are not clear. Doctors are used to receiving phones from women who are not sure if they have gone into labor and need assistance. It's part of their job. The truth is that the doctor can figure out many things in your tone, communication being very important in this case. You will want to know how long the contractions are and how often they are. He will notice if you can talk during a contraction.

When is the case to go to the hospital?

Whether your pregnancy was one with or without complications, call your doctor or go to the hospital if:

1. Your water has broken or you suspect leakage of amniotic fluid. Tell your doctor if the leak is brown, yellow or green or if it looks like a menstrual period;

2. Notice that the fetus is no longer as active as before;

3. You have vaginal bleeding, fever, acute headache, hallucinations or abdominal pain;

4. You have contractions before 37 weeks.

Labels Labor labor signs Birth contractions braxton hicks Cervix dilation Water rupture

How to teach children to protect themselves from toxic people

Parents just want their children to grow up happy and learn to be successful people. But on the road of life we ​​all meet toxic people who steal our energy and even try to sabotage our success. Therefore, it is necessary and very important for children to learn to protect themselves from toxic people.

The first step that children must learn is, above all, to differentiate what a toxic person is. They should understand that the toxic person is:

- The one that makes them feel bad when we are by their side (for no apparent reason).

- The one who tells them things that hurt them emotionally.

- People who criticize or try to hurt others.

- Those who humiliate.

- Those who insult.

- Those who seem like good people but the reality is that they are manipulative.

- Those who make you feel ashamed.

But for a child to be able to protect himself from toxic people, in addition to knowing how to differentiate them, it will be necessary learn some strategies to help protect yourself from them even though he can't get away from them. Sometimes these toxic people are people who are too close to the child, such as a teacher, a family member or a classmate. In this case, you need to know that there are times when toxic people are too close but that they will have the ultimate power to decide whether or not their behavior affects them. But what should the little ones be taught?

1. Boost your character and self-esteem. The words or behavior of others do not have to be something that affects them.

2. Differentiate if that person is really toxic or not. Just because a school teacher is in a certain way does not mean that he or she is toxic or that 'he has caught a mania'.

3. Differentiate if it is not your own behavior (that of the child) the one causing uncomfortable circumstances (for example, if the child feels anxious, if he is nervous, if he has inappropriate behavior, etc.).

4. The child must know who will have the support of his parents under any circumstances.

5. Learn to set limits in front of other people. Tell the children that we all have a protective barrier around us that helps us and that he can make it very strong. It is an invisible but powerful protective barrier. Whenever you are in a situation where you have a toxic person nearby, you must 'activate' it so that nothing the other person does or says affects you.

6. He should always be kind and respectful with others in order to receive the same behavior, even from toxic people.

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First days at home with your baby

First days at home with your baby

You've probably heard that all a newborn baby does is eat, poop, cry, and sleep. Sounds simple, right? It may become simple, but chances are it won't seem that way at first. Knowing what to expect from your newborn will make your first days home together a little less overwhelming.

To help map out what's in store after the big homecoming, we turned to pediatricians and mothers Laura Jana and Jennifer Shu, who literally wrote the book on the topic. The third edition of their book Heading Home With Your Newborn: From Birth to Reality was released in May 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

What to expect: Newborn feeding

Because their stomachs are so tiny, newborns need to eat small amounts frequently – about 1 to 3 ounces at a time. Some want to nurse or have a bottle every two to three hours, and others will be hungry even more often.

While some babies announce their hunger with strong cries, others give more subtle cues such as sucking on their hands, smacking their lips, or rooting (when a baby purses her lips and turns her head toward the breast or bottle).

In their first few days, newborns typically lose about 7 percent of their body weight. Although this is normal, you'll want to feed your baby every two hours or so until she's back at her birth weight.

Newborns are sleepy, so you may need to wake your baby up to feed and give her gentle encouragement to stay awake while eating. Try undressing your baby down to the diaper, rubbing her head or back, or talking to her. The goal is for your baby to be back to her birth weight at her two-week checkup.

What to expect: Newborn burps, hiccups, and spit-ups

Some newborns need to be burped frequently, while others burp on their own and need very little assistance from you. If your baby is fussy or seems uncomfortable during or after a feeding, that's a cue to burp her.

You can also burp your baby when you switch breasts, after every 2 or 3 ounces, every 10 to 15 minutes of feeding, or when your baby's finished eating. After a day or two of feedings, you'll find a pattern that works for your little one.

No need to whack your baby's back – a gentle circular motion or soft pats will bring up the bubbles. There are several burping positions to try, including holding your baby with her head resting on your shoulder, sitting her upright on your lap with the fingers of one hand supporting her chest and chin, or laying your baby tummy-down across your lap.

Don't be alarmed by hiccups or spit-up. Hiccups are normal for new babies and don't cause them discomfort. Likewise, spitting up during and after feedings – whether in just small amounts or what may seem like the entire feeding – is normal.

If your baby's spitting up seems excessive, or if she also arches her back or cries, she may have a type of reflux. Read more about the difference between reflux, which is normal and improves with your baby's head control, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, which requires treatment. Whatever the cause, keep a burp cloth handy.

What to expect: Newborn pee and poop

A breastfed newborn will have at least five wet diapers a day. A formula-fed baby may have even more than that – up to 10 per day.

There's also a large range for what's considered a "normal" number of bowel movements. Breastfed babies tend to poop more than formula-fed ones because formula takes a bit longer to digest. But the regularity of breastfed babies can vary widely: Some go as seldom as once every four or more days to as often as once per feeding. Formula-fed babies typically poop a few times a day, but it can range from one poop every other day to several poops per day.

Keep track of your baby's pee and poop schedule because the doctor may ask about her urine and bowel movements at the first checkup.

The very first bowel movements – called meconium – usually happen within the first day or two after birth (often while you're still at the hospital. These first poops are black and have an almost tar-like consistency. The ones that follow won't look much like grown-up poop either. From a breastfed baby, be prepared for seedy poops that are greenish, light brown, or, mustard-yellow. A formula-fed baby's poops tend to be pastier and vary in color. Call the doctor if there are whitish mucus or streaks or flecks of red in your baby's stool because this can indicate a problem. (Red flecks can indicate there's blood in your baby's stool.)

The consistency of normal poop also ranges from very soft to watery, with breastfed babies having looser poop. This can easily be confused with diarrhea. Basically you want to keep an eye out for a change from your baby's usual pattern or consistency – which is admittedly hard when your baby is first creating a pattern. When in doubt, check with your doctor.

"If you're confused, just remember this," says Jennifer Shu. "Whether we're talking about pooping, eating, sleeping, or crying, every baby is different. Normal is actually a big range. What matters most are sudden changes – and that's when you should contact your doctor."

See our complete baby poop slideshow for a visual guide to what you might find in your baby's diaper.

What to expect: Newborn crying

There's no getting around this one: Your newborn will cry. How often, how hard, and how long is entirely variable and will change over time, says Laura Jana.

For the first few days, many newborns are remarkably quiet and sleepy. But by two weeks old, a typical newborn will cry about two hours a day. (Crying usually increases until about six to eight weeks of age, then starts to taper off.)

Over time, it'll get easier to figure out why your baby's crying. At this point, run through the most likely culprits – soiled diaper, hungry, overtired, uncomfortable – and you'll probably find the source. If not, another reason for early fussiness can be overstimulation. Some infants get fussy when they're amidst too much commotion or activity.

There will be times, however, when your baby cries with no clear cause, and you'll need to figure out what soothes your baby. Remember: There's no such thing as spoiling a newborn, so respond to her cries with attention and affection.

If being unable to always quickly or accurately figure out why your baby is crying makes you feel helpless, frustrated, or incompetent, try to be less critical of yourself. "Every new mother has been there, even the 'experts'," says Shu. "There will be times when your baby's needs are obvious, but there will also be times when you're just not sure about anything!"

What to expect: Newborn sleep

Your newborn's tiny tummy will likely keep her from dozing more than a few hours at a time before she wakes up to eat. All the short naps will add up, though – your newborn will sleep about 16 to 18 hours total each day. You may want to track when and where your baby sleeps, to identify patterns and answer any questions from your baby's doctor.

Luckily, newborns have the amazing ability to fall asleep pretty much anywhere – in the car seat, baby carrier, bassinet, or in your arms. Many newborns prefer the snug fit of a car seat or baby carrier to their crib for sleeping, because the close confines remind them of your womb.

That's why so many new babies love being swaddled, too. Being snugly wrapped up mimics the environment your baby is used to and keeps a reflexive jerk of an arm or leg from waking her up.

No matter when or where your baby sleeps, always put her on her back and remove all loose blankets, as well as bumpers, pillows, quilts, and toys to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Also, never leave a snoozing baby unattended on a couch or bed as the risk of rolling or falling is always present, even if your baby can't roll on her own yet.

Once your baby is asleep, don't be surprised if you hear her making strange noises. If it sounds like your baby has a cold, it's probably because babies are natural nose breathers. Since she can't clear her nasal passages by herself yet, you can use a bulb syringe to clear them for her, which may make it easier for her to breathe and sleep – and even eat.

What to expect: Newborn breathing

Another newborn habit is periodic breathing. Your baby may breathe quickly, pause for a few seconds, then start breathing again. Although normal, it can be unnerving.

However, the following signs aren't normal and warrant an immediate call to your baby's doctor:

  • Grunting
  • Flaring of the nostrils
  • Chest retractions (sucking in the skin above the collarbone, between the ribs, or below the ribs)
  • Breathing that's consistently fast
  • Wheezing from her chest (rather than her nose or throat, which is a sign of garden-variety congestion and stuffiness)
  • Heavy, noisy breathing (audible wheezes, whistling sounds, or crackly sounds during inhalation and exhalation)
  • Pausing more than 10 to 15 seconds between breaths

See more signs you should call the doctor for your newborn.

What to expect: Newborn bathing

Keeping your baby clean in the first couple of days is pretty basic. For now, you won't need the baby bathtub. While your baby's umbilical cord stump is still hanging on, follow your baby's doctor's advice on bathing your baby – most hospitals advise against immersing the stump in water. Sponge baths are enough to keep a newborn clean for the first week or two. In fact, too much bathing could dry out your baby's skin.

Use a warm, damp washcloth or unscented wipes to gently wipe around neck folds and other areas where breast milk, formula, or moisture might accumulate, finishing with the genitals. If you notice any redness or irritation in the diaper area, a swipe of diaper cream or petroleum jelly should squelch it.

Don't be surprised if your newborn's skin doesn't look like the perfect baby skin in the commercials – that will come later. Many newborns have a range of minor skin irritations, such as newborn rash, cradle cap, peeling, or general dryness after emerging from their nine-month bath in amniotic fluid. You may even spot some shoulder and back hair – it usually falls out within a week or two.

Read more about baby body care.

What you really need: Newborn clothes

Cute outfits will probably take a back seat to ease and comfort at first – after all, you want clothes that are easy to change, and that work well for your baby's many naps. Many parents use some combination of T-shirts, one-piece bodysuits, and footed pajamas, plus a swaddling blanket or a sleep sack in cold weather or at night.

If your newborn dislikes having clothes pulled over her head or her umbilical cord stump is sensitive, kimono-style one-piece outfits that snap at the sides can come in handy. For warmth, most hospitals send newborns home with a hat, but unless it's quite chilly, a cap is optional.

Use your common sense as well as your own internal thermostat to gauge how many layers to put on your baby. Many people adhere to the age-old "what you're wearing plus one layer" rule. When in doubt, add a light blanket or hat – you can always remove it if your baby feels warm.

Read more about dressing your infant in the first six weeks.

What you really need: Newborn gear

During your pregnancy, you may have amassed a small mountain of baby gear. For now, you won't use much of it. You need a safe place for your baby to sleep and of course you'll need a properly installed car seat for the ride home. Extras such as bouncy seats, activity mats, toys, and other baby gear will come in handy eventually, but don't worry about them this week. Your newborn's needs right now are both all-consuming and surprisingly simple.

Check out our handy list of mom and baby gear for the first six weeks to see what's most useful when you bring your baby home.

What to expect: Your transition home

Bringing home a baby is a life-altering change, and you shouldn't expect to adapt to it the moment you walk through the door. In fact, it may take anywhere from a few days to a few months to get your bearings. While you're navigating this huge adjustment, remember to cut yourself some slack and let go of your ideas about how things "should" be.

Your body is dealing with fluctuating hormone levels, healing from giving birth, and is seriously sleep-deprived. Your mind is adjusting to this new stage of life. You may laugh, cry, be frustrated, get excited, and feel a myriad of emotions within mere hours – or minutes. And you'll probably find that caring for a newborn – simple as those needs are – takes up an astonishing amount of time, making it hard to fit in even the basics for yourself.

About 70 to 80 percent of new mothers experience the "baby blues" during the hormonal roller coaster that is the first few weeks after delivery. Luckily, the baby blues are short-lived, generally fading within two weeks. All parents should be aware of them, though, and of the signs of postpartum depression (PPD).

Compared to the baby blues, PPD lasts longer and is more severe. PPD affects 1 in 10 women – and new dads as well. Getting treatment is important for both you and your baby, so if you have symptoms of PPD, talk to your partner or someone close to you for support and discuss your symptoms with your doctor.

One way to combat the baby blues is to carve out tiny bits of time to tend to yourself, and enlist family, friends, or hired help to handle chores and errands. Don't be shy about asking your friends and family to help stock the fridge, bring meals, or run a load of laundry.

While your baby sleeps, use the time to take a nap, grab a shower, or just spend a few minutes looking at a magazine or zoning out. Anything you can do to recharge your batteries between feeding, burping, changing, and cuddling will help.

What to expect: Your body

Your body is also going through major physical changes. About 72 hours after giving birth, your milk will come in. Often, this coincides with your first day at home. Until now you've been producing the coveted, antibody-rich colostrum, which is usually yellower than breast milk.

You'll know when the real deal comes in because your breasts become noticeably fuller, firmer, and heavier. This is when engorgement can happen.

While many people assume breastfeeding comes naturally, it's not uncommon to hit some bumps in the road – especially early on. "Even if you were coached by a lactation consultant or nurse at the hospital, you may need more help after you head home," says board-certified lactation consultant and childbirth educator Sabrina Easterling.

A lactation consultant or support group can be invaluable for troubleshooting problems and getting adequate assistance in these first few days. With help, you'll start to learn the finer points – from getting the perfect latch to finding your favorite hold.

Breastfeeding can make your nipples really sore. Try different positions to prevent aching and cracking. Washing your breasts with water, applying pure lanolin cream after breastfeeding (the cream does not need to be removed before feeding), using drops of expressed breast milk as a nipple moisturizer, or even icing your breasts can help.

If you're not sure whether your baby's hungry, pay attention to whether she actually swallows when you offer her your breast. If she's self-soothing rather than nursing, try offering her own thumb for comfort to give your nipples a rest.

If you've decided not to breastfeed, get advice from your doctor or a lactation consultant about the best way to suppress lactation. "Once you ramp up production, many women are surprised to find that it can be tough to shut it down without discomfort," Easterling says.

While you stop lactating, you'll experience engorgement pain. The discomfort should peak about three to five days after giving birth and then taper off. To deal with the temporary pain, try over-the-counter pain relievers, ice packs, and a supportive bra. A decongestant can also help speed up the process, as it dries out body tissues.

If you had a vaginal delivery, you'll probably be quite sore. If you had a tear or an episiotomy, it may be extra painful. Apply a cloth-covered ice pack to the area to reduce swelling. Some women swear by witch hazel pads for reducing inflammation, too.

When you go to the bathroom, use a squirt water bottle instead of wiping, which can be painful. Many women experience severe constipation after delivery, and stool softeners can help. Also, for about six weeks after delivery you'll probably need to wear a full-size sanitary napkin to absorb the flow of blood called lochia, which ranges in color from red to yellow to white.

A c-section is major abdominal surgery, and if you had one, you'll need someone to help you with almost everything for at least a week – from basic household tasks to picking up your baby for feeding and diaper changes. In fact, many doctors advise their patients not to pick up anything heavier than the baby until they get the doctor's all-clear at the first postpartum check-up.

You'll probably leave the hospital with some form of pain medication, and it's a good idea to track what medicine you take and when. Been-there-done-that moms concur: Take what you need, and don't feel the need to be brave and go without.

Call your doctor if you notice blood or pus seeping from the incision, as that could indicate infection or a blood clot. As with those who've had a vaginal delivery, you'll want to avoid straining on the toilet, and you may need to take a stool softener for at least the first bowel movement or two.

One of the most shocking things about your post-baby body might be the one thing that didn't change: You probably will still look pregnant. If so, don't fret, it typically takes weeks – or months – for your body (especially your belly) to fully recover. In the meantime, it's perfectly normal to keep wearing maternity clothes after giving birth.

Read more about recovering from childbirth