24 short dictations for fourth graders

24 short dictations for fourth graders

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Breastfeeding and health problems: useful tips for you and your baby

When your baby is born prematurely or has certain health problems, breastfeeding can be continued as long as the doctor recommends it. Breast milk contains antibodies and nutrients that help the baby recover faster.

Certain infants should be fed with a cup or special feeding devices. Instead, if you have health problems, you need the consent of the specialist doctor to be able to breastfeed your child. Otherwise, you may be advised of a suitable milk formula.

Breastfeeding baby with health problems

Some babies born prematurely or with a low Apgar score may not breastfeed well. Others may suffer from metabolic problems or are born with cleft palatine (palatoschizis) or rabbit lip (cheiloschizis).

To ease breastfeeding, you can use a supplemental nutrition system (SNS). It is shaped like a container from which a thin tube comes out. In the container, put the breast milk, milked with the help of a manual or electric pump, and the tubule is inserted into the baby's mouth.

Remember! A baby with health problems will not need less breast milk, but more. Even if you resort to milk supplements, specialists recommend that you return to exclusive nutrition as soon as possible.

When to use a supplemental nutrition system (SNS)?

Your doctor may recommend the use of an additional nutrition system, in the following cases:

- the baby cannot take the breast;

- you have adopted a baby and you want to breast feed him;

- lactation did not start naturally and should be stimulated;

- you want to gradually stop supplementing with a milk formula and you need to increase milk secretion;

- you cannot breastfeed the child personally and call on the help of another person.

How to use an SNS?

There are two easy ways to use an additional nutrition system:

1. Breast attachment

Hold the tubule on your breast, half an inch above your nipple. Direct it so that the central baby blames the palate ball and insert it into the baby's mouth with the breast. In this way, he will receive the milk supplement directly from the breast.

The benefits of attaching a breast SNS are the following:

- The baby will not confuse the breast with the nipple and will not refuse to be fed directly from the chest, when you resume normal breastfeeding.

- Lactation is stimulated. The baby receives milk both from the breast and from the collecting container.

2. Finger attachment

The SNS can be used by anyone, not just the mother. For example, the daddy can stick his tubus on his finger with a little leucoplast. The baby will suck on the finger, in this case.

You can also use this method if your child refuses to breastfeed and wants to resume breastfeeding. A flow regulator, just like the one used for infusions, can be mounted on the SNS tube. In this way, you have control over the flow of milk the baby receives from the container.

After use, clean the tubing device with a 10 ml syringe. Inject the hot water into the tube two to three times, then inject air, until all the remaining water comes out on the tube. Do not boil or sterilize the tubing because it can strengthen and disturb the baby.

How do you get back to exclusive breast feeding after using an SNS?

The basic idea is simple: the more your baby sucks, the more milk you produce. When you feed him with a bottle, you do not stimulate your breast in any way. Your body will not know what milk your baby needs. In contrast, when using an additional nutrition system, the baby will receive breast milk, collected in the NHS container, directly from the breast.

Here are the steps you need to follow when you plan to use a temporary SNS, then revert to exclusive breastfeeding:

- Analyze the amount of breast milk received as a supplement to your baby in recent days, and see what its maximum value is.

- After you start using the SNS, do not exceed the maximum amount of milk, baby drink.

- At the base where the baby becomes agitated and crying, feed it, put it on your skin, or swing it or sing it.

- After two days of accommodation with the NHS, I gradually reduce the amount of supplement, by 10 ml per day. Do not worry that your baby will receive less milk. Lactation is stimulated when using an additional nutrition system, so the breasts will produce at least 10 ml of extra breast milk every day.

- Count how many diapers the baby wears, within 24 hours. A full diaper is one watered with 3-4 tablespoons of water. If your baby wears 5 to 8 diapers a day, he or she gets enough milk and is properly hydrated.

What to do if your baby shows signs of lactose intolerance?

Lactose intolerance manifests itself as symptoms bloating, flatulence or intestinal disorders. If your baby shows any of these symptoms or more, it does not necessarily mean that he does not tolerate milk.

A newborn can have vomiting and intestinal gas because his digestive system is immature. Your baby has just entered the period of transition from the womb, where he received nutrients through the placenta, to digesting milk.

In the first days after birth, feed your baby with small amounts of colostrum or transitional milk. Within ten days, "true" milk production should start. Do not worry if your child's seat is soft, this is normal in a baby exclusively breastfed.

Intestinal disorders are also caused by fluoride or iron supplements. If you use such supplements, consult your doctor if it is not best to discontinue their administration until the baby's digestive system is sufficiently developed to tolerate them.

What diseases can lactose intolerance be confused with?

When the gas and vomiting are persistent and the baby suffers from visible discomfort, ask the doctor for advice. These symptoms may indicate a gastrointestinal disease.

Here are the main conditions, often confused with lactose intolerance and vice versa:

- abdominal colic;

- gastric diseases of infectious nature (enterocolitis or gastroenteritis);

- gastroesophageal reflux;

- allergy to milk proteins;

- allergy to cow's milk consumed by the mother;

- diaminoxidase deficiency (DAO), an enzyme that degrades histamine; in her absence, allergic manifestations occur;

- celiac disease (gluten intolerant);

- irritable bowel syndrome;

- digestive disorders of different carbohydrates;

- Crohn's disease.

If your baby is suffering from any of these conditions, under no circumstances should you stop breastfeeding. Breast feeding is recommended by specialists without reservation, even when the baby suffers from a gastrointestinal disease.

The more it is recommended to continue breastfeeding, since the baby is less than six months old and breast milk is his only source of food.

What are the chances that your baby will have lactose intolerance?

Lactose intolerance of congenital nature is a very rare condition. It is estimated that only one in 85,000 children is born with such a condition. Only 40 cases of genetically transmitted lactose intolerance have been reported so far in the world.

Therefore, make sure that the digestive disorders have no other cause, before deciding to give up breastfeeding.

Here's what you need to know about lactose intolerance:

- Lactose is a form of sugar found in all dairy products, including breast milk and milk powder formulas.

- Lactose intolerance is a disorder caused by lactase deficiency, an enzyme secreted by the intestinal mucosa and which has the role of digesting milk sugar and reducing it to the form more easily absorbed by the body.

- All newborns have lactase in their intestines. Once weaned, the level of this enzyme decreases. This is also why this condition usually manifests in children, around the age of 3-4 years.

- Congenital lactose intolerance is a very rare genetic disease. The baby is born practically with the inability to digest lactose from dairy products, including that from breast milk and formula. Only in this case, the baby should be fed a lactose-free powdered milk formula.

- Secondary lactose intolerance is a common, reversible disorder, caused by other gastrointestinal diseases such as gastroenteritis. In this case, diarrhea, vomiting and gas are caused by irritation of the stomach by various microorganisms. The disease also leads to a temporary decrease in lactase production.

- Secondary lactose intolerance lasts until the baby's stomach is healed.

- The mother's diet does not influence the amount of lactose in breast milk.

- Breastfeeding should not be done excessively, in order not to give the baby more lactose than it can digest. Feed your child only with the amount of milk he needs, he doesn't breastfeed more than he should.

How to feed your baby when you are sick?

Not only your child may face health problems. Most of the conditions you suffer from do not stop you from breastfeeding. Very few diseases, such as HIV infection, come with the recommendation not to breastfeed.

Researchers have shown that infants fed powdered milk formulas get sick much faster than those breastfed. When you are the one who suffers from such a condition colds or flu, you will need someone to take care of your baby while you rest.

If the disease requires hospitalization, ask the medical staff for help in feeding your child. You can use pumping milk with a manual or electric pump. Breast milk supplies can be kept both in the fridge and in the freezer. You can ask someone in the family to take the milk containers home, in case the baby cannot be admitted to you, for safety reasons.

How medicines affect the breast-fed baby

In the article "Breastfeeding and diseases", posted on the website of the International Center for Breastfeeding, Dr. Jack Newman, emphasizes that breastfeeding - even when the mother is under drug treatment - is always safer than administering powdered milk.

In other words, caring for the baby means continuing breastfeeding, not interrupting it. The main argument is that the temporary weaning of the baby can cause the baby to refuse the breast later.

Most of the diseases you can contract are caused by viruses. Your baby may also get the virus before the first symptoms manifest themselves in you. That is why you have no reason to give up breastfeeding. Even if your baby is also suffering from the same condition you suffer from, it will most likely make it a milder form of the disease. The same is true for infections caused by streptococci.

Moreover, you may be pleasantly surprised to find that your baby did not get sick, even though you have a fever. And that's because you didn't stop breastfeeding. Antibodies in breast milk protect your baby from infections transmitted by viruses that you can contract.

Autoimmune diseases do not prevent you from breastfeeding your child

There are a number of conditions in which the human body secretes antibodies directed against its own organs or tissues. These diseases are called generic autoimmune diseases. These include autoimmune thyroiditis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, lupus and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

If you have been diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, you should know that breastfeeding is not contraindicated. The argument is this: the antibodies contained in breast milk are different from the antibodies directed against their own organs.

In other words, autoimmune diseases are not contagious, and "bad" antibodies do not pass from mother to child either through the placenta - during intrauterine life, neither during birth nor through breast milk.

Breast problems heal faster when breastfeeding

If you suffer from mastitis or blocked channels, the chance of your breasts healing faster is higher if you continue to breastfeed.

In case of complications and you become operated on breast abscess, make sure the doctor does not make the incision around the areola. Such an incision most often affects the nerves, decreases the sensitivity of the nipple and reduces the amount of milk produced.

To prevent surgery, the abscess may be repeatedly aspirated with the needle. Also, a catheter can be used to drain the abscess. These minimally invasive methods, combined with antibiotic treatment most often give you results and get rid of scalpel.

What you may not have known is that surgical procedures of any kind do not require breastfeeding. You can resume breastfeeding as soon as you wake up from general anesthesia and feel able to do so.

What health problems did you face during breastfeeding? How did your baby behave in those situations? But you? What benefits of breastfeeding have you noticed? Share your experience with us, using the comment section below.

On the same topic:

Breast milk: useful tips for pumping and storage

Comfortable breastfeeding positions

Breastfeeding and its challenges: problems and solutions

How to breastfeed your newborn baby: 7 tips to follow!

Premature Breastfeeding Tags

Romilda: origin and meaning of the name for girl Romilda

Are you pregnant and looking for the ideal name for your baby? Our name finder has thousands of names for girls to help you in this important choice. We highlight the name in the dictionary of meaning of names: Romilda.

It is a rare name in Spain but not so in Italy, where it was spread since the Middle Ages by a famous Lombard countess, the Countess of Friuli (7th century).

It comes from hruom: "fame" and hild: "combat"


  • Rocío Jurado, Spanish singer (1946-2006)
  • Rocío Dúrcal, Spanish singer and actress (1944-2006).

Romilda name coloring pages printable game

Romilda: pictures of the names coloring page printable game

Romilda name coloring page printable game

Drawing with the name Romilda coloring page printable game

Drawings of names. Romilda name to color and print

Meaning of the name Hosea. Name for boys


Are you pregnant and looking for the ideal name for your baby? Our name finder has thousands of names for boys to help you in this important choice. We highlight the name in the dictionary of meaning of names: Hosea.

History of the name Hosea

Name of the first minor prophet in the Bible and the last king of Israel.

Meaning of name Hosea

"Saved by God"

Saints of the name Hosea

July 4th

Origin of the name Hosea


Famous people with the name Hosea

  • Saint Optacian, Bishop of Brescia in the 5th century

Hosea name coloring pages printable game

20 Baby BOY Names With Positive Meanings I Love!

How to determine the date of conception?

How to determine the date of conception? It is not often that a woman can determine the day on which fertilization took place. If before did not observe her menstrual cycle, calculators that calculate the approximate date of conception can come in handy. The fetal age will be more accurately determined by the doctor during ultrasound examinations. And although the date of conception is the correct beginning of pregnancy, the so-called gestational age is more important for the doctor. It is on its basis that the date of delivery is determined.

Let's start from the beginning. Fertilization can only occur during about one day, during the ovulation phase, which usually runs on day 14 of the cycle. It should be remembered that fertile days start earlier - sperm can survive in the woman's body from 3 to 5 days, and the egg up to two days after leaving the ovary.

How to recognize ovulation?

Many women can feel the moment of ovulation - appears then lower stomach pain and breast hypersensitivity. It can also come to a slight increase in temperature around the cervix, and immediately after ovulation - to a slight increase in body temperature.

They are noticeable changes in cervical mucus - a few days before ovulation it becomes transparent, and just before ovulation itself is more dense. Therefore, it is worth conducting observations of the cycle and calendar entries, because it will later be more likely to determine the date of conception.

Age of pregnancy and date of delivery

Menstruation is much easier to notice than ovulation and it is on its basis that the so-called age of pregnancy. This is Naegele's rule according to which pregnancy lasts 280 days or 9 months from the start of the last menstrual period. In fact, it is two weeks shorter and lasts 266 days from ovulation. It is assumed that the menstrual cycles were regular and lasted 28 days, and ovulation took place on the 14th day. It is the age of pregnancy that the doctor uses to keep the pregnancy card and set the date of delivery. Fertilization age, in turn, determines the exact age of the fetus and is counted from the moment when conception actually took place.

It is worth noting that in Only around 5% of children are born on the date of delivery based on the gestational age. 90% are born within 2 weeks before and up to 2 weeks after the deadline. However, it is very important for a woman to know exactly when to expect a delivery, as well as for the safety of the child, that the delivery date should not be too late or too early.

How to calculate the conception date yourself?

Many pregnancy calculators are available on websites to help you calculate the approximate date of conception. Most often you need data such as: date of the start of the last bleeding, length of the menstrual cycle and sometimes also the length of the luteal phase. They also allow you to determine the date of conception based on the date of delivery. However, these are all estimates that assume pregnancy lasts 280 days from the date of the last menstrual period or 266 days from the date of ovulation. They need to be modified if the cycles are irregular and do not last 28 days.

Fetal age determined by the physician

Ultrasound (ultrasound) performed by a gynecologist gives more certainty about the moment of pregnancy. This applies especially to tests during the first trimester of pregnancy. Later, fetuses grow at a different pace, which means that ultrasound examinations in the second and third trimester of pregnancy no longer allow such accurate and reliable age determination. In the case of ultrasound examinations, 2 weeks are added to the fetal age obtained, which usually pass from the first day of menstruation to ovulation (and fertilization), thus obtaining an inflated fetal age.

The longer the pregnancy lasts, the greater the discrepancy between the age of the fetus and the age of pregnancy can be, even 3-4 weeks. If in the first trimester ultrasound examination it turns out that the pregnancy age differs from that calculated based on the last menstrual period by more than a week, the doctor will change the method of calculating the pregnancy age to the one determined in the ultrasound examination. This is especially the case when the menstrual cycles before pregnancy were very irregular.

Determining paternity based on the date of conception?

When a woman finds out that she is pregnant, and before she did not analyze the cycle carefully, she often wants to find out exactly on which day the conception took place. It happens that he wants to determine in this way who the father of the child is, for example, when she had more than one partner. However, it should be remembered that most often the exact date of conception is not possible to determine with 100% certainty. Usually, only the time period during which fertilization could occur can be determined. The date of conception does not necessarily coincide with the date of intercourse. It is not possible, therefore, to reliably establish fatherhood. The unambiguous answer in this case will be given by genetic tests, performed during pregnancy or after childbirth.

Pediatric Rheumatology Days

Pediatric Rheumatology Days

Pediatric rheumatic diseases, their treatment options and professional discussion were at the center of the Second Children's Rheumatology Day in Karos.

The meeting a Fürdõ of Zalakaros Organizational presentation of the results of the two-day discourse and the previous dr. Richjrd Buryan, Chief Executive of the Bath, dr. Constantin Tamбs is a pediatric rheumatologist who deals with this disease Bad Bone Foundation and his dr. Magdolna Bagdi, a specialist in bath rheumatology, reported at a press briefing held on November 9 in the spa.
- Mostly hard to believe an adult societythat rheumatoid arthritis is not uncommon in childhood, even though the number of children aged 18 years and older with chronic inflammatory disease is estimated in Hungary reaches 4-5 thousand people. Childhood rheumatic disease is the most common chronic disease in the affected age group. An important part of treating pediatric rheumatism is the use of physiotherapy, the use of biological therapies, the expert said.
- The spa in Karos can be linked to the care of the children just because of the above - so dr. Burjбn Richбrd. - One of our bathrooms is special business problems treatment, there is a wide selection of treatments offered to "after care" rheumatic complaints. I believe that we can extend the spa services with special training in the treatment of pediatric rheumatology. Dr. Magdolna Bagdi added: The bath basically carries out the treatment of many young children, the professional bases
- Parents are unfortunately aware that children can be reached TB treatment, that means dozens of times each year. In the case of post-accident rehabilitation and emergency care, we can provide after-care for children, for example.
Dr. Tamás Constantin also reported that beyond what was exchanged during the course of this meeting, the realities of the country in the near future were being explored. Biological therapy centers Formerly launched, pain analgesics have been launched, as well as a grant from the Hungarian-Slovenian Fund for Pediatric Medicine and the University of Ljubljana.
These signs will warn you if your baby is not developing well

Although every baby develops otherwise, it is important to be aware of some warning signs that may indicate that you are a little behind. The earlier the appropriate treatment is started, the greater the chance of success.

"Physical developmental retardation means that the baby does not perform activities (such as rotation, motion, exercise) that children of similar ages do," says American Academy of Pediatrics. "It is important for parents and pediatricians to recognize these differences as early as possible, to identify what is causing the gap, so that the baby can receive the benefits that are needed for proper growth and growth."What warns you that your baby is falling behind in development?

At 4 months

The baby does not hold the head loudly.
At this age, most babies are able to keep their head alone, with their head not leaning sideways or forward. If you lie on your back and put it on your knees, your head will follow the movement when properly developed; if it lies on your stomach, it is able to push up and hold itself in the vicinity.It does not take objects to the mouth.
It shows the proper development of hand muscles and coordination when the baby is able to grab and bring objects to the mouth. "The hand is extremely complex and requires the coordinated, organized work of muscles, business and nerves," he says. Daniela Corbetta, PhD, who studies fine motor development in infancy.You don't try to touch, grab objects.
Most of this age, the dental reflex disappears and is replaced by the voluntary use of hand. Your baby may still lick the objects, but grabbing and holding them indicates that they are developing properly.

At 6 months

If you set it up with the help of it, you will not be able to keep your weight.
A well-developing baby can hold his own weight when he is held in his or her foot and on a hard foot surface (such as the floor) without hesitating. This shows that his legs are strong enough.It doesn't spin.
By this age, babies are usually able to turn from belly to belly or belly to belly.The limbs of the baby are stiff, or too numb or weak.

At 9 months

The baby is not capable of lifting himself up in an unstable position.
Massive, relying on a strong object (furniture or even a parent), most babies can stand up and hold on to the right position.You can't stand without support, without support.
The 9-month-old babies are all alone without being hit by the person who is catching them or a cushion. Not only is livelihood essential for movement development, but it is also an important prerequisite for the introduction of solid foods.

At 12 months

The little one strangely flies.
Of course, it is not possible to count on a stable baby at this age, but it is important to consult with your pediatrician if the baby is very strange, is very different from his / her peers, or if his / her movement gets worse over time.

18 months old

The baby didn't make the first steps.
Other year-old babies generally begin to fiddle, unsteadily, or holding onto one of their parents' hands. If this did not happen, you should definitely talk to your pediatrician immediately!It is difficult to hold or hold objects.
It can be a worry if the little one can't grab a small spoon, toothbrush or other similar sized object.

At the age of 24 months

The little one is very "uninitiated."
At this age, it is natural for a baby to fall, drop his toys or fall off himself. It is the same kind of very "inconsistent", for example, if the child regularly hits the furniture or the wall, it is very difficult to climb the stairs, etc., in any case require examination (via)You may also be interested in:
  • 6 things you don't have to worry about
  • Pregnancy: the 10 most common developmental abnormalities
  • That's how baby develops day after day

In the world of children, the questions regarding their health are wide and are multiplying every day according to the health of the little ones. However, beyond that there are some issues that have to do with the rest of the children and the better beds so that the posture is correct in its growth.

It is well known that choosing a good mattress accompanied by a suitable pillow will make children rest much better during their sleep hours. For your posture is correct, the bed in question should not be excessively soft but not too hard, as this will cause them to develop neck and back pain from their young age.

In the field of beds there is a specific type that, although it has a current of detractors, but also contains many benefits for our children: the water beds.

Water beds are those that are filled with this liquid and that allow the body not to have any pressure and to feel slipping. For children, a water bed can have great advantages, such as the fact that they will not have muscle pains and that this mattress will adapt to your body, contributing to its growth.

On the other hand, a waterbed is also more comfortable and combined with a comfortable pillow it can help the child to fall asleep at a stretch and to get to sleep much earlier as they will feel much more comfortable and rested. In addition, you will be able to correct your posture if you have a back problem and you will not feel heavy when you get up.

You can read more articles similar to Advantages of water beds for children, in the category of children's sleep on site.

Dental procedures to be avoided during pregnancy

Dental procedures to be avoided during pregnancy

Oral hygiene is essential, especially during pregnancy. However, if you are pregnant and have been left out of treatment with dental disorders, make sure that the procedure used does not in any way affect your pregnancy. Find out what procedures are dangerous for a dentist during pregnancy!

While normal hygiene should not be neglected for a moment, dental problems are common and should not only be treated. However, there are several procedures for care and treatment, as well as for dental cosmetics, which have a high degree of risk when undertaken during pregnancy and which should be avoided as soon as possible after birth.

Dental radiographs

Although not completely forbidden, most doctors recommend caution in performing dental x-rays during pregnancy.

Exposure of pregnancy to X-rays can have serious effects on the fetus.

The period most vulnerable to exposure with these X-rays is the first trimester of pregnancy, when they are totally forbidden. Some dentists claim that from the second trimester, the procedure can be performed if special protection conditions are met.

However, the general recommendation is to avoid the use of pregnancy dental x-rays, if the dental condition allows postponing treatment until birth.

You must read:

Radiographs in pregnancy, danger to the fetus

Teeth whitening and other cosmetic procedures

Specialists recommend avoiding teeth whitening in pregnancy, not necessarily because they know that they would have some serious side effects on the fetus, but because of the uncertainty that plagues the effects of the substances used in this procedure during pregnancy.

There have been no scientific studies that can accurately test whether dental cosmetic procedures have a negative effect during pregnancy. The concern is on the carbamide peroxide that the products contain. It would have been shown to cause an oxidative process that is harmful to the tissues and cells of the body. But it is not known if there is a particular risk during pregnancy, so it is best to avoid it.

Dental anesthesia

Although local anesthetics are considered to be indicated in pregnancy, physicians recommend caution regarding surgical treatments that require anesthesia. During pregnancy, the precaution in administering the substances introduced into the body is higher than ever.

Even if there is medication allowed in pregnancy, the substance used in dental anesthesia should pass through the placenta as little as possible, in order not to harm the fetus. One of these substances with a low degree of harm is the artain (it passes through the placenta only in proportion of 10%). Substances that pass through the placenta in more than 10% are forbidden in pregnancy, and the usual anesthetics used in dental medicine present this risk.

The doctor should be warned about the pregnancy when you go to him, and if possible and the conditions allow it, postponing the treatment of the condition until after birth is the safest decision you can make for the safety of the fetus.

Long procedures

With the evolution of pregnancy, long periods of state in the same place become dangerous. Thus, any intervention that requires a long state of time in the chair favors the appearance of venous embolism (especially in the last trimester of pregnancy).

Prosthetic, surgical and periodontal treatments

Always the first recommendation of doctors is prevention, especially during pregnancy. However, when conditions are inevitable, most doctors recommend delaying the condition until after birth, to avoid interventions that could harm the fetus.

The treatment of dental diseases is much less accessible during pregnancy, and the variants are limited and not always adequate and 100% effective for the respective problem.

Tags Oral pregnancy hygiene Pregnancy dental care