Your 5 3/4-year-old: Understanding disasters

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BB Angelcare AC403 Monitor

BB Angelcare AC403 Monitor

Elected 2016 Mum Price in the Safety and Comfort Equipment category at Babycool, this baby monitor has many functions for optimal safety: a motion detector under the mattress, a display and a temperature control of the room and a night light on the infant's unit: 149, 90 € (Angelcare). In specialized stores. Infos about

Secrets to raising smart kids: Play music

Secrets to raising smart kids: Play music


How to help your child learn poetry for the celebration

Celebrations at school or kindergarten can be both a joy for the little ones and an important stress factor for them.

On the one hand, the joy of being well advanced in the next year, the happiness due to the vacations that follow and the opportunity to play an important role in the artistic event of the year and to be in the center of attention for at least a few minutes, make the children to look forward to the celebration.

On the other hand, the pressure that educators, teachers and parents put on them during this event, the huge expectations they all have from them, their own desire for success and perfectionism, their fear of public speaking and their responsibility to speak in public. learn songs and poems can be quite overwhelming especially for preschoolers and shy schoolchildren.

If you want to help your child in such an emotionally charged moment and give him the self-confidence he needs to participate, you can help him with some tips and techniques that will stimulate his memory and will determines to learn faster the poetry to be said at the celebration!

Tips and techniques to stimulate your child's memory

Give him time

Hermann Ebbinghaus notes in his volume "Memory: a contribution to experimental psychology"one very important thing in terms of memory stimulation: children have a tendency to quickly forget things they are learning and that is why they need to repeat their information several times.

The forgetfulness curve that the psychologist speaks of in his volume that appeared over 100 years ago is a theory according to which as children repeat their lessons or poems, they need less and less time to remember them. That is why, the day after you learn poetry, your child will almost completely forget it. If she continues to repeat it in the next few days, she will have to repeat it fewer and fewer times to remember it.

Make sure it has the optimal context to learn

Children cannot concentrate when they are tired, when they are hungry or when they are with the mind elsewhere. Avoid interrupting your child's play to repeat his poetry, because his brain and energy will be focused in a completely different direction. Choose a time when you are rested, the village and quiet to do this. This will channel his full attention and make the lyrics much easier to remember.

Suggest them to associate with the things you already know

If the poetry for the holiday is about summer, help him think about what summer means to him. Sun, field flowers, sea water, beach, vacation, high temperatures, longer days are just a few of the things you can mention. Use these to help him graphically represent his poetry in thought.

Help him repeat the lyrics

Repetition is the mother of learningsays one of the people. No matter how smart your child is and no matter how easy it is to memorize new things, it is very important that he repeat his information so that he doesn't forget it.

Help him by telling him the next word, if he does not remember it and it is you who will check his successes. You can use rewards that are not material to stimulate their desire for learning, as it is the system of smiling girls which are used by so many schools and kindergartens to make children proud of them and want to become more and more successful.

Explain to her the words she does not understand

Sometimes the poems that educators or teachers offer to students can be quite difficult for their lexical level. This does not mean that they go beyond their ability to learn, but that it stimulates them to learn new words.

Be with your child whenever he asks for an explanation and take on the role of the dictionary to explain the meaning of the new words he encounters. By finding out their meaning and grasping it, it will be much easier for them to memorize the order of words and to learn the flow of phrases and lyrics.

What techniques did you approach to stimulate your child's memory? We look forward to your comments in the comments section below!

On the same topic:

Useful tips for moms. How to learn the role your child will play at the celebration?

How do you prepare your child for the celebration. Useful tips for parents!

Emotions before the celebration. How do you help the child overcome them?

Tags Children's memory Celebration preparations

How to keep the water from falling. Child experiment

How to keep the water from falling. Child experiment

Water is one of the best elements for conducting home experiments for children. With these activities the little ones can learn some of the secrets of science quickly and easily.

For this exercise you only need a highball glass, water and a card from a deck of playing cards. Although it is important that you have a lot of delicacy when doing this infantile experiment if you do not want to put everything lost in water.

  • 1 highball glass
  • 1 card from a deck
  • 1 water fountain (just in case)
  • Water

Tip: It is recommended that you use the water source in case the experiment does not come out the first time.

1. Take a highball glass and fill it with water to the limit without overflowing.

2. When you have a full glass, take a card from a deck and cover the glass with it.

3. Now carefully take the glass and turn it over. You will see how the water does not fall.

Two things act on the letter: the weight of the water and the atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure is higher and pushes the card up, preventing the water from falling.

Non-alcoholic champagne. A toast with children and pregnant women

Study: Women can drink while pregnant

The language bath

10 false myths about respiratory infections in children

10 false myths about respiratory infections in children

Throughout the fall and winter months, respiratory infections in children increase in incidence. Despite its high frequency in children, it is common for us to come across false myths to address its management. Here are some of the most common errors and false beliefs.

-The cough must always be cut. Fake. Coughing is a defense mechanism that favors the mobilization of secretions. If this mobilization does not occur, the stagnant mucus can be secondarily superinfected by bacteria, with which the process can worsen. It is only necessary to consider the fact of attenuating the cough in postoperative patients, or in case of completely preventing night rest. Remember, however, that when children have a cold, they sleep poorly due to a host of circumstances, and not just because of the cough: it bothers their throat and joints, with fever the normal sleep pattern can be distorted, etc.

- The child has green and thick mucus, because his cold has become complicated. As the days go by, the mucus becomes thicker and thicker. It is the normal evolution of any cold.

- The best measure against snot is a good syrup. The best measure against snot is a good hydration of the child, and clear their nostrils with a good shot of serum. By the way, nasal washes should not be done preventively; They should be done only when the child is going to eat and has a busy nose, or when he is very upset by the nasal obstruction.

- The child has a fever, and you have to cover him a lot, because colds have to sweat. This is false. With fever, fluids tend to be lost, and the fact of putting the child under a large layer of sweaters / blankets / coats can cause discomfort in the child and risk of dehydration.

- The child has a fever, and for this reason it is not necessary to bathe him. That's not true. A child with a fever can be bathed without problems, preferably with lukewarm water. Note that when you have a fever, you sweat more than when you do not have a fever.

- "Strong" colds must be treated with antibiotics. Fake. Colds are secondary to viral infections, and viruses are not killed by antibiotics. Of course: there are certain complications that sometimes appear secondary to a cold (suppurative otitis in young children, sinusitis, pneumonia) that must be managed with these drugs, as they are the result of a bacterial superinfection. Bacteria do die with antibiotics.

- My doctor has been confused: he has diagnosed my son with sinusitis without doing a radiological test. A sinus x-ray is not necessary to diagnose acute sinusitis. Sinusitis is diagnosed clinically: the joint presence of fever and respiratory symptoms, with persistent mucus in the back of the pharynx, for more than ten days.

- When the child has a sore throat or is hoarse, put a handkerchief impregnated with alcohol around his neck. This measure not only does not benefit the child at all, but it can lead to local irritation of the skin. Also, since the permeability of the skin in young children is higher than in adults, this alcohol can be absorbed and pass into the blood.

- A humidifier is good for a child with bronchitis. This is not correct. Moreover, up to 50% of children with bronchial affectation, environmental humidity harms them.

- Bronchiolitis in an infant younger than three months should be treated with bronchodilators. Bronchiolitis, technically speaking, is the first episode of respiratory distress with wheezing (commonly known as “whistles”) and infectious cause in a child under two years of age. It is due to edema in the wall of the small bronchi, and this edema occurs as a result of a viral infection. It should be noted that bronchodilators have not been shown to be effective in younger infants. Therefore, its routine use is not indicated.

You can read more articles similar to 10 false myths about respiratory infections in children, in the category of Children's Diseases on site.

Common Respiratory Infection in Infants and Kids

0-1 year old: toys according to his acquisitions

0-1 year old: toys according to his acquisitions View the slideshow

To properly choose your baby's toys, it's important to consider what he knows (and likes) to do! From birth to 12 months, month by month, here are some pointers to help you find the right toys according to your new skills.

Attention, these are just indications, each baby is different and there is no need to worry if yours is late or early compared to this small table acquisitions.

Karine Ancelet


0-1 year old: toys according to his acquisitions (11 photos)

0-1 months: he tests his innate reflexes

0-1 months, what he can do:

- He clenched his fists with a force of 12 pounds in each of his hands.
- He sucks all that can fall under the tongue, but abandons if it is not a breast, a pacifier, or a finger.
- If he is lying flat on the changing table, he tries to crawl by pushing the towel with his toes.
- He sleeps a lot, but as soon as he is awake, he is interested in everything that moves.
- What he appreciates above all is the hugs

Toys that please him:

- Abacuses

- Small music boxes

- The mobiles

1-4 months: he discovered himself over the days

Around 1-2 months, what he can do:

- He sleeps less and is passionate about his hands. He is able to put his fist in his mouth and shake his rattle for a few seconds.
- He applies to hold his head upright to better grasp the movements of things and people around him.
- He likes to see things and people move, but he likes to move too. He loves walks.

Toys that please him:

- The rattles

- The mirrors

- The mobiles

- Abacuses

- Music boxes

- The rings of the porticoes

1-4 months: he discovered himself over the days

Around 3 months, what he knows how to do:

- He would like to spend a lot more, around 3 months, but he finds that lying down his movements are limited: he still shakes his hands and legs with enthusiasm.
- He is fascinated by objects that shine or make noise. He throws out his hand to hit them ... but rarely reaches his goal.
- He loves and can stay semi-sitting in a deckchair a good time, this position allows him to better control his actions.

Toys that please him:

- Rattles and other elongated toys with colorful patterns

- The loungers

- Music boxes

1-4 months: he discovered himself over the days

Around 4 months, what he knows how to do:

- He likes, from 4 months, rolling his back on the belly and lift his head.
- You can start to put him in a sitting position in his recliner. He is delighted because he keeps his head straight, which allows him to better direct his movements.
- He can join his hands and hold his toys longer.
- All these novelties enchant him, he laughs and vocalizes.

Toys that please him:

- Awakening mats

- The rubber animals he sucks

- teething rings (his teeth will soon begin to work and he loves sucking)

- Small soft toys and cloth toys

5-8 months: he starts the movement

Around 5-6 months, what he can do:

- He keeps his back straight, which allows him to better use his hands. He opposes his thumb to his other fingers to try to grab a toy within reach.
- When he drops a toy (especially if it makes noise), he looks for it.
- He likes to pedal and brew the air of his arms.
- It is more and more "manual". Around 6 months, he can grab a toy in each hand.
- He likes to type objects on top of each other or on any hard medium.
- He likes his image in the mirror, he "talks" to her and smiles at him.
- Sitting on the ground, he can tilt his bust by leaning on his hands and move his buttocks "backwards".

Toys that please him:

- Toys with easy grips (stems, feet, handles)

- The rattles

- The big colored rings

- The toys with bells or squeak

- Activity tables with mirror

5-8 months: he starts the movement

Around 7 months, what he knows how to do:

- He starts to crawl. He tries real balances, flat stomach, support on one hand. He manages to catch a toy. He is about 7 months old.
- When he is on the back, he tries to sit down and starts to reach it.
- He is unable to open his fingers if he holds them tense on a toy ... even if he is offered another more attractive. Yet he knows how to pass a toy from one hand to another.
- He is hypersensitive, a thing makes him burst into tears.

Toys that please him:

- Activity portals

- Suction toys

- Teething rattles

- Soft toys

- The big cubes

5-8 months: he starts the movement

Around 8 months, what he knows how to do:

- He sits down now with ease.
- He leans on his legs to jump (if you support him!).
- He grasps the objects with thumb and forefinger and can go looking for them even if they are far from him.
- He cries as soon as he sees strangers.
- He plays with pleasure to "Hello, here he is!"
- He likes to shoot anything that hangs out.

Toys that please him:

- Bath toys

- Soft toys and cloth dolls

- Toys with wheels

9-12 months: he tries to master the "elements"

Around 9 months, what he knows how to do:

- He crawls or walks on all fours, possibly standing while leaning against a piece of furniture.
- He catches his toys and contemplates them as if he were comparing them.
- He agrees to give a toy he holds (if you pull a little hard on it!).
- He likes to be told stories.
- He still cries easily, fears being scolded, has trouble falling asleep.

Toys that please him:

- Soft toys

- Cloth balls

- Books in plastic, fabric or cardboard

- cubes or building blocks

- Simple form boxes

9-12 months: he tries to master the "elements"

Around 10 months, what he knows how to do:

- He explores his toys: the concave, the convex, the volumes.
- He knows how to let go of the toy he is holding to catch the one you are giving him, this is one of the major acquisitions of his 10 months.
- He puts the objects less systematically to his mouth.
- He imitates the voices, mimicry and reproduces certain gestures of his parents, he caresses his bear or his doll.

Toys that please him:

- Toys to stack, to embed, to slide on an axis

- The real dolls

- The phones

9-12 months: he tries to master the "elements"

Around 11 months, what he knows how to do:

- He likes to stand with your help ... or that of a piece of furniture.
- He can turn to take a toy behind him.
- He knows how to roll a balloon approximately in your direction. At 11 months, he coordinates well the look and the gesture of his hand. He is able to find a toy hidden under a cushion.
- He likes to hear sing and move his body in rhythm.
- He looks at the pictures for a long time.

Toys that please him:

- The balls

- The image makers

- Songs CDs

- The musical toys

- Trotters

9-12 months: he tries to master the "elements"

Around 12 months, what he can do:

- He can stand up along a wall ... and down on his buttocks. He's going to be 1 year old ... or just got them!
- He can hold a pencil and scribble.
- He eats and drinks alone in his cup.
- He recognizes his name, understands your orders, pronounces four to six words. He likes life in society.

Toys that please him:

- Large felt (washable), erasable tables or boards

- A small desk and his chair

- Imitation toys (phone ...)

- The bearers and toys to shoot

- Construction games with pins

- The dolls and swimmers

Exercises for children to learn to chew correctly

Upper respiratory tract infections (Colds)

Causes and unfolding
The number of colds that a child can have is 10 times greater than the number of all other diseases taken together. Their pathogenic mechanism is only partially understood at this time. It seems that they are caused by a wide range of viruses, so small that they are not seen under the optical microscope. It is believed that there are more than two hundred viruses that can cause a common cold. If nothing unusual happens, the cold goes away in 3 to 10 days.
Viral cold leads to decreased resistance of the body, especially at the level of the nasal and pharyngeal mucosa, and germs that produce more severe diseases (streptococcus, pneumococcus and Haernophilus influenzae) go into action. In this case, they are called secondary invaders and can trigger illnesses in other circumstances. Often, they are normally found in the nasal and pharyngeal mucosa, but they do not have harmful action due to the natural barriers of protection of the body. When the body's resistance is low, they have the chance to multiply and invade the tissues, leading to pneumonia, ear infections or sinusitis.
The best way to stay out of the cold is to avoid direct, physical contact with someone who is sick of gout.
Colds in infants
Colds in infants. In the first year of life there is every chance that the baby gut will have a light shape. At first, the child may sneeze, then will have rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction. He might cough a little. Fever rarely occurs. When your nose is clogged with abundant secretions, you might want to blow it yourself instead, but it doesn't seem to bother you. Instead, being unable to breathe causes the child to shake desperately, even refusing to suck sometimes.
Nasal obstruction can be resolved by aspirating the mucus with special rubber pumps. Tighten the rubber shaft, gently insert the tip into the baby's nose and release the shaft. You can put one or two drops of salted water in the clogged nostril before beginning the operation described above. Remember that the nasal mucosa of the baby is very sensitive so it is good not to traumatize or exaggerate with the operation to clear the nasal obstruction. Limit yourself to the period preceding the meal and sleep respectively.
Moisture of the atmosphere in the room sometimes helps to prevent nasal obstruction. If the obstruction is severe, the doctor may prescribe adequate nasal instillation (before sucking) or administering mouth-water medicines to be administered before sucking. Sugar does not usually lose its appetite, and the cold ends within a week. It is possible (rarely) to last longer without complications. If 2 weeks have passed and the symptoms persist, you should call your doctor.
Obviously, gout in infants can also take serious forms, degenerating into otitis, sinusitis and other complications. During the disease, the baby may have a febrile episode that may indicate a secondary bacterial infection. If a frequent or swelling cough occurs, the baby must be examined by the doctor, even if he does not have a fever. The same rule applies even if the general condition is altered, the child looking sick during a banal cold. In other words, a baby can be seriously ill without a fever, especially in the first 2-3 months of life, during these months the resistance to infections is very low. If a febrile episode occurs, it should be referred to the doctor.

Mumps and fever after 1 year

Some children still have colds as mild as when they were infants. However, the most common is the situation of acute upper respiratory tract infections. After 6 months -1 year, it is advisable to follow what happens most frequently. A 2-year-old girl is healthy in the morning, at noon she looks tired and doesn't have much appetite. He sleeps in the afternoon, and when he gets up he does not feel very well and his parents take the temperature finding that it is 38 ° C. Until the doctor arrives, the fever may rise to 39-40 ° C. The cheeks of the child are red and the look slightly glassy, ​​but otherwise the girl does not seem affected. You may eat little or no food in the evening. There are no common cold symptoms, and all the doctor could discover is a possible redness in the throat, the next day there may be a slight fever, but now the nose has started to run and maybe the baby coughs from time to time. From now on, the cold follows the usual course and can last between 2 days and 2 weeks.
There are also variants of this scenario. Sometimes, the child vomits from the beginning, when the temperature rises sharply especially if at lunch the parents have forced the girl to eat against her will (it is always good to take seriously a child who claims he has no appetite). Sometimes the fever lasts a few days, until the symptoms of gout start to appear, and sometimes it is no longer followed by them. The term flu is commonly used when the general symptoms of fever or altered general condition predominate, instead of local ones such as rhinorrhea or diarrhea. You may think that a fever that lasts a day suggests a gout, but the baby feels good after the fever episode but after a few days the rhinorrhea or cough may develop.
Children older than 6 months can start any trivial bout with a febrile episode so you don't have to be very scared. However, you should contact your doctor or nurse whenever the child feels ill because it can sometimes mean a more serious infection.
Over the age of 5-6 years, fever does not appear in this context.
The fever that occurs after the symptoms of gout have subsided indicates that another infection has occurred or the existing one has worsened. You do not have to be alarmed, but the doctor should check the baby again to see if there is an infection in the ears, respiratory tract or urinary tract.


When should the doctor be called?
There is no need to be called by the doctor when the child just runs his nose or coughs several times a day. But it must necessarily be called when new manifestations occur, such as earache, cough or fever that appears or becomes worse within a few days after the onset of the cold. Tachypnea (accelerated breathing), irritability, excessive fatigue accompanying a cold are symptoms that require an emergency medical consultation.
Treatment required
Most doctors and parents do not keep the child in the house and do not give them treatment when they have a simple cold. Keep in mind that these simple colds are produced by viruses and, as a result, antibiotics are of no use. Their excessive and inappropriate use will only cause the selection of resistant colonies. As such, when you need medication, it will no longer be useful.
However, if your child is susceptible to prolonged colds or complications (such as bronchitis or otitis), you need to be more careful.
The atmosphere in the room must be humid
Doctors sometimes recommend humidifying the air in the child's room during a cold. The air drying due to the heating of the room is counteracted and the nasal and pharyngeal mucous membranes are sufficiently moistened and their inflammation is improved. The humidification of the air is of great value in treating dry cough, rebel or croup. In the hot season, when the room is not heated, it is less necessary to humidify the air. The most effective, but also expensive (between $ 40-400) is the ultrasonic nebulizer. You can use a regular one that costs under $ 30. Regardless of the type used, you will have to clean the water tank at least once a week with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and water. This prevents the growth of molds and bacteria in the tank and their spread in the room.
An electrical device that produces humidification by generating hot vapors by placing an electrical resistor under a water vessel that is brought to the boiling point may seem less expensive considering it can also be used for heating. It is more dangerous because a child can hit it, the vessel overturns and the child can scratch. If you want such an appliance, make sure it even has a thermostat so that it can turn off on its own if the water reaches the desired temperature.
National picaturile
The doctor may prescribe instillation of some drops in the nose. These preparations are generally of 2 types. The first is salt water, which you can prepare with 1/2 teaspoon of salt per 200 ml in warm water or you can buy it in the form of vials of physiological serum from the pharmacy. This type leads to the softening of dry secretions and makes breathing easier. The secretions soaked with salt water are sucked in with a special rubber pump after one or two drops of physiological serum placed in the nose.
The other type of nose drops is decongestant substances of the nasal mucosa. It creates more breathing space and can drain the mucus. The main disadvantage is that, after the vasoconstriction phase, the tissues react with an even stronger inflammation. The nose will be clogged again, and if the instillations are repeated too often, the nasal mucosa may be irritated.
There are 2 situations when these drops can be used with beneficial effect. The first is when the child's nose is so clogged that it becomes extremely agitated. He cannot suck, because he suffocates, and his sleep is always interrupted, in this case, using the suction pump of the nasal secretions can also be used. Older children who cannot sleep because of a clogged nose may also benefit from this treatment. The second situation is the final stage of a serious cold, when the purulent nasal secretions are so thick that they cannot drain themselves.
Nasal drops should be used only at the doctor's advice, no more often than 6 hours apart. Do not use them for more than 5 days unless directed by the doctor. A disadvantage of nasal drops is that many children bother and often do not do so much good that it is worth the effort to administer.
There are some cases where the doctor may prescribe some oral medication. Many physicians use solution-administered drugs (which are preferable to drops) to reduce sinus, bronchial, and nasal secretion.
How to administer drops
Nasal drops have a better effect if they are administered so that they reach the deepest parts of the nose. Inhale the mucus from the nasal vestibule with the pump, then place the child on the back on the edge of a bed, with his head hanging down. Then instill the drops in the nostrils and hold the child in the same position for 30 seconds, so that the drops can reach the bottom of the nasal cavities.
Antitussive medicines
They cannot cure a cough, in the sense of destroying the germs that caused the infection. They only have the effect of easing mucus drainage from the upper airways, especially from the trachea. A person who has an infection of the airway must cough from time to time to eliminate purulent secretions by expectoration. It is very important that the cough reflex is not permanently suppressed. The doctor can prescribe the antitussive medication in order to ease the patient's suffering, to reduce the intensity of the cough episodes that do not allow the patient to rest, to eat and which causes the neck irritation. Any episode of cough that does not give up and repeats should be brought to the attention of the doctor. He should recommend a cough medicine that is appropriate for your child. Do not give the child adult medicines.

Resistance of the body to colds

Conditions for maintaining health
Many people have the impression that they breed easier if they are tired or cold, but the truth of this statement has not yet been proven. However, rest and proper clothing are sufficient precautions.
The rooms that are heated in winter time become too dry, affecting the respiratory mucosa especially when the nose is full of mucus. The temperature in the room must be below 21 ° C. Many mothers place a vessel with water above the heating source in the room. The method is often inefficient and dangerous when there are children in the area. It is good that the temperature remains constant below 21 ° and is measured regularly, with well-calibrated thermometers, properly calibrated.
What effect does nutrition have on infection resistance?
Normally, each child should receive a balanced diet. There is no evidence that a child already receiving a variety of foods will have fewer (or more) colds if a new food is introduced (or eliminated from the amount received by another). There is no evidence that a larger than normal amount of vitamin C can prevent colds.
Age plays an important role

Because nowadays more children are quickly introduced to the community (nurseries, kindergartens, there is a tendency for more and more prolonged forms of the disease and with many complications between the ages of 4 months and 2 years. After the age of 2-3 years , the frequency and severity of colds decrease. At 9 years of age, children make only half of the number of colds from 6 years, and at 12 years only half of the number from 9. This statistical finding should be a relief for parents. to whom it seems that their little one is permanently cooled.

The psychological factor in the gut
Psychiatrists are very confident that certain adults and children are more susceptible to colds during times of stress or upset. There is nothing mysterious. Scientists have demonstrated the existence of a link between emotions and immunology. Stress appears to decrease the body's resistance to infections and influence leukocytes and other cells and substances involved in immune reactions.

Cold transmission

Contacts with other children
There is another factor that influences the number of colds a child can present, and this is the number of children they play with, especially in confined spaces. Children living on an isolated farm have fewer episodes of gout because they are exposed to fewer germs. On the other hand, the child who goes to the community (kindergarten, nursery, school) has many colds, being exposed to a much greater variety of germs. Unfortunately, the disease can be transmitted even one day before the person has it, and sometimes the germs can be transmitted by a person who does not have the disease.
Can transmission of the cold be restricted to other family members?
Most colds brought into the family affect younger children at least in a mild form, especially if there is little space and the same rooms are used. The germs are transmitted from one person to another through the drops scattered in the air by sneezing or coughing (in large doses), as well as through the air in which a sufficiently large number of germs floats. Parents (especially if they have a cold with sore throats) should avoid sneezing, coughing or breathing directly in front of the child, should wash their hands with soap and water before handling objects that reach the child's mouth ( teaspoon, teat, toys, food) to avoid transmission of large numbers of germs.
If you suspect a foreign person is cold (or has another communicable disease) be very careful not to leave it in the same house with the child or at a distance of less than 4-5 m from the stroller when you are walking