He found out at the dentist why the child was not speaking

Special Situations

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Halloween lollipops: step 7

Halloween lollipops: step 7

Halloween lollipops: step 7

Do the same for the other witch but place chocolate vermicelli to make them eyes and mouth.

Hepatitis B during pregnancy

Hepatitis B during pregnancy

Are pregnant women routinely tested for hepatitis B?

Yes. When you come in for your first prenatal visit, you'll have a series of routine blood tests, including one to check for the hepatitis B virus (HBV, or Hep B). This virus can cause severe illness, liver damage, and even death.

More than one million people in the United States carry the virus, but many have no symptoms and don't know that they're carriers. If you are, you could pass the virus to your baby at birth.

Finding out if you're a carrier enables your healthcare provider to take special precautions at the time of delivery and to treat your baby immediately after birth, which would most likely prevent her from getting infected.

If you test negative for HBV and haven't received the hepatitis B vaccine, your provider may recommend that you get immunized, especially if you're at high risk for contracting the disease. (See below for a list of high-risk groups.) The vaccine is safe for pregnant women and developing babies.

How could I have become an HBV carrier?

Hepatitis B is a highly infectious virus that's spread through blood, semen, and other bodily fluids. If you're a carrier, you may have contracted the virus:

  • Through sexual contact with another carrier
  • At birth (if your mother was a carrier)
  • By sharing needles or getting stuck by a needle accidentally
  • By using a toothbrush or razor that has a small trace of a carrier's blood on it (even if you can't see it)
  • By getting a body piercing or tattoo at a place with poor sanitation practices

What are the symptoms of HBV?

If you contract hepatitis B, you may feel very tired. You may also have abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, appetite loss, joint pain, or jaundice (yellow-tinged skin or eyes). But many people have no symptoms and never even know they've been infected.

About 6 to 10 percent of people who are age 5 or older when they contract HBV end up being carriers of hepatitis B, meaning their body never gets rid of the virus. About 15 to 25 percent of those with a chronic HBV infection eventually end up with a life-threatening liver disease or liver cancer. An estimated 2,000 to 4,000 people in the United States die every year from an HBV-related illness.

What happens if I test positive for HBV?

Your provider may first want to give you a more specific blood test to get more information about your condition and how well your liver is working. And since the virus affects your liver, you need to give up drinking alcohol entirely – not just while you're pregnant. Also, don't take acetaminophen (or other over-the-counter medications that contain acetaminophen) because this drug can harm your liver.

You'll most likely go to a specialist for further care, including periodic evaluations of your liver function. Everyone else in your household, as well as any sexual partners, should also be tested.

If they aren't carriers, they should be vaccinated. Use condoms during sex to avoid infecting your partner.

Your provider may recommend antiviral therapy with a drug called tenofovir, which can lower the risk of transmitting HBV to your baby.

Vaginal deliveries and c-sections are equally safe for HBV carriers. And according to the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, c-sections aren't necessary to reduce the risk of transmitting HBV to your baby.

Within 12 hours after you give birth, your medical team will give your baby a shot of hepatitis B antibodies and her first shot of the hepatitis B vaccine. That should be adequate short-term protection from hepatitis B. Together, the antibodies and the vaccine are about 85 to 95 percent effective at preventing hepatitis B infection in babies whose mothers have HBV.

She should get the second and third doses of the HBV vaccine at her regular well-baby checkups. All three HBV shots are necessary for lifelong protection, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all babies receive them.

An HBV positive mom can breastfeed as long her baby received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and the HBV vaccination at birth.

It's important for you to get ongoing follow-up care after you deliver because chronic carriers are at risk for serious liver disease.

What would happen if my baby did get hepatitis B?

If you're an HBV carrier, your chances of transmitting the virus to your baby at birth are 10 to 20 percent, unless she receives treatment within 12 hours of birth. The risk varies depending on when you were infected and how much HBV is in your blood. There's an 80 to 90 percent risk if you become infected with hepatitis B during your third trimester.

Infants who become infected might not have any symptoms right away but are much more likely to become chronic carriers than other children or adults. Chronic carriers may spread the virus throughout their lives, and the disease is transmitted so easily children can't even share things like toothbrushes.

Children with HBV are at higher risk of developing and dying from liver disease or cancer. Although there's no cure for hepatitis B, certain drugs may lower the risk of severe liver disease.

Who is most at risk for contracting hepatitis B?

Because hepatitis B is transmitted through exposure to blood and body fluids, those most likely to be infected include healthcare workers, household contacts and sexual partners of carriers, people with multiple sexual partners, and intravenous drug users. Immigrants from Southeast Asia, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, and the Amazon basin also have higher rates of infection.

If you're at risk for hepatitis B, be sure to get vaccinated – it can protect you if you don't already have the virus.

Use the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine’s Find an MFM Specialist tool to locate a high-risk pregnancy doctor near you.

Visit the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine's website for more information.

Is rheumatism the cause of miscarriage?

Is rheumatism the cause of miscarriage?

Rheumatic Diseases may be one of the reasons why you may experience recurrent miscarriages in the first months of your pregnancy. Head of the Internal Medicine and Rheumatology Department of Hisar Hospital. Dr. Mehmet Soy is one of the causes of recurrent miscarriages; but unknown rheumatic disease describes Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome.

Can recurrent miscarriages be caused?

Recurrent abortions are a common medical condition in the community. Most of the recurrent miscarriages are caused by systemic problems such as chromosomal disorders, developmental defects, anatomical problems of uterus, infection and chronic diseases. However, a type of rheumatic disease called Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome should also be considered in cases with recurrent miscarriage and other causes.

What is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS) is a disease caused by the immune system. Autoimmune disorders occur when the body's immune system produces antibodies that attack and damage the body's tissues and cells. Antibodies are a kind of protein. The immune system usually produces these proteins to defend against infection. In Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome, the body accidentally produces antibodies that attack phospholipids (a type of fat). When the antibody attacks phospholipids, it damages the cells and causes unwanted blood clots in the arteries and veins of the body. These blood clots can damage the body organs by blocking the blood flow. The condition characterized by the presence of these antibodies is also called Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome. It may be alone (Primary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome) or may accompany other rheumatic diseases, especially Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (called Secondary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome).

What are the main symptoms of antiphospholipid syndrome?

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome is usually seen in young women. These women often experience recurrent miscarriages in the first few months of pregnancy as well as migraine-like headaches, recurrent deep vein thrombases (especially blood clotting and clotting of the veins in the legs), and even arterial blockages. Artery obstructions can occur in many places, especially in the brain. Joint pain, various redness of the skin (such as livedo reticularis) may occur. Various types of blood thinners may be required in the pregnancy of such patients. Some patients may have to use blood thinners for life. For this reason, recurrent abortions, recurrent deep vein thrombosis, lung, brain clot throwing in patients with conditions such as this condition should be considered in patients and rheumatology specialist should be consulted.

The Silver Flowers show, organized by DGASPC sector 6

The Silver Flowers show, organized by DGASPC sector 6

The Nostalgia Choir, along with its guests Mirabela, Nico, Raoul, Ionut Galani and Aurelian Temisan, will invite you on December 18, starting at 5 pm, in the AFI Palace Cotroceni (skating rink) venue at the "Silver Flowers" show.

The show, organized by the General Directorate of Social Assistance and Child Protection Sector 6 every year, to welcome the winter holidays, promises this year to live up to expectations.

The traditional star of the event, Nostalgia Choir, benefits from the support of established artists such as Nico, Mirabela, Raoul, Ionut Galani or Aurelian Temisan. A tradition has also become the launch of a new album for this event. With the support of generous sponsors and publications that have decided to release the CD through their distribution network, the new album, titled "Flowers of silver", has the chance to reach the homes of many Romanians to brighten their holidays. .

The songs performed by the children from Nostalgia, along with the stars that support them, are covers of songs we all love, most of them Christmas.

The show scheduled on December 18, at 17.00, at AFI Palace Cotroceni (ice rink area), will offer moments of joy to children and adults in sector 6, while promoting social services for the community.

Also invited to the show, Santa Claus has bags, dolls and other personalized gifts for the little ones. Cristian Constantin Poteras, the mayor of sector 6, who generously supports him, will be present among the little ones. On the occasion of this event, the small beneficiaries of the Multifunctional Social Centers Buburuza Mare and Buburuza Mica have prepared a special number of music and dance. The two centers offer care, educational, cultural and sports activities for preschool children in the community.

The presenter of the event, Aurelian Temisan, will also announce the winners of the big raffle that will take place on the occasion of the event. The prizes are: an iPad 2, a trip to Vienna, a laptop, cameras and ipods.

Tags Children's shows Activities with children Fun activities for children Events for children Parent events


- I have a girl of 3 anisors and she does not pronounce some letters for example C is T for her and S is SH and many words come out very bad. She'll be going to kindergarten in the fall and I'm afraid she'll be laughing at children. I don't know how to teach her how to speak properly. Or if it's the case of a speech therapist?


Some children develop their language easily and others require more time for it, without this being pathological.

Some children develop their language easily and others require more time for it, without this being pathological.
Also, some letters are harder to pronounce correctly by children, which can actually create certain emotional disorders at a certain age, especially in a community (kindergarten, school).
This is why it is desirable to detect and correct language disorders early.
What you can do is talk to her a lot, correctly and naturally, even if she does not pronounce the words correctly and without always making comments about how she speaks.
Also, I advise you to consult a pediatric doctor or even a specialist in infant neuropsychiatry, for an evaluation of the psychomotor development, the behavior and the language corresponding to the age; Following this evaluation, the doctor can assess whether or not your little girl needs the help of a speech therapist.

Alina Pop-Began
- Resident doctor - Anesthesia and Intensive Care-
Specialist details
Our site Press Releases

our site is committed to providing the most helpful and trustworthy pregnancy and parenting information in the world. Our content is doctor approved and evidence based, and our community is moderated, lively, and welcoming. With thousands of award-winning articles and community groups, you can track your pregnancy and baby's growth, get answers to your toughest questions, and connect with moms, dads, and expectant parents just like you.